- Academic Staff: University positions that are not involved in research, health care or teaching. Focus is instead on administrative and support roles.
- Faculty – Health (Clinical) Focus: Professor focusing on clinical research
- Faculty – Primary Research Focus: Professors, Assistant Professors, Associate Professors
- Instructor/Lecturer: Non-tenure track university positions
- Postdocs: Postdocs and Residents (Clinical)
- Research Staff: University positions participating in research projects
The following job titles are a sample of job titles found in our surveys of alumni career paths. They are meant to offer examples of common job titles, but are not a complete list of the many positions held by Biosciences alumni.
- Account Manager
- Associate Director Partnering Strategy
- Business Development Associate
- Digital Marketing Director
- Project Manager
- User Experience Designer
- Venture Partner
- Application Scientist
- Bioinformatics Scientist
- Computational Biologist
- Data Scientist
- Field Applications Scientist
- R&D Scientist
- Reproductive Biology Lead
- Scientist I/II
- Senior DNA Engineer
- Senior Scientist
Employer data for schools and universities are organized according to Carnegie classifications. These classifications are based largely on the amount of research activity and number of doctoral degrees awarded by the institution each year. This allows us to quickly sort institutions and the various career paths they represent in a way that job titles do not always make clear.
- R1 represents universities awarding at least 20 doctoral research/scholarship degrees or at least 30 professional practice doctoral degrees in two or more programs. These universities are also considered to have a strong focus on research activity, both in aggregate and per trainee. Additionally, they operate with at least $5 million in research expenditures per year, as reported through the National Science Foundation. Examples include Stanford University, MIT, and UC Berkeley.
- R2 universities also award at least 20 doctoral research/scholarship degrees or at least 30 professional practice doctoral degrees in two or more programs, and have strong research programs. They are differentiated from R1 institutions thanks to slightly less investment in some aspect of their research activity, either with fewer facilities or fewer researchers. Research funding is still high though, with at least $5 million in research expenditures per year, as reported through the National Science Foundation. Examples include the University of Vermont, Chapman University, and Baylor College.
- Medical institutions are institutions that fall outside of R1 and R2 designations described above, partly due to their high concentration of degrees in or related to medicine over other fields of study. Examples include UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
- Private colleges or universities are privately-funded schools in the United States that do not meet all the requirements of an R1 or R2 classification, and may include smaller, undergraduate-only programs. Examples include the Columbia College, Wesleyan University and Bethel University.
- Public colleges or universities are primarily tax-funded schools in the United States that do not meet all the requirements of an R1 or R2 classification, and may include smaller, undergraduate-only programs. Examples include Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, Medgar Evans College CUNY and Oregon Health & Science University.
- Independent research institutes are not part of a university, government, hospital or corporation. While they may have close relationships with larger institutions such as universities, they are not part of the larger institution and operate under their own authority. Examples include Scripps Research Institute, the Salk Institute, and the Gladstone Institute.
- International institutions can offer a range of degree and research programs, and may have parity with many of the requirements of an R1 or R2 school. However, they are excluded from classifications like R1 and R2 by definition, which only include US schools. Examples include A*STAR in Singapore, McGill University in Canada and Oxford University in England.
For more on the these definitions and the methodology behind them, please see The Carnegie Classification of Institutions